This glossary defines selected terms as they pertain to the healthy living prescribed learning outcomes from the curricular areas of Health and Career Education K-9, Planning 10, Graduation Transitions 11- 12, Home Economics 8-12, Physical Education K-12 , and Daily Physical Activity. It is provided for clarity only, and is not intended to be an exhaustive list of terminology related to the topics in these curricular areas.
- active transportation
Includes cycling, skating (skateboards, inline skates, scooters), and walking. Regular use of active transportation is one strategy for maintaining an active, healthy lifestyle.
- Active Living
An aspect of the healthy living performance standards that assesses student learning that contributes to increased physical activity, now and in the future.
An individual who supports or speaks in favour of a cause, a policy, or another individual, and whose goal in advocating is to support or promote positive change.
- aerobic activity
Any physical activity sufficient in intensity that requires the heart and lungs to increase their work for sustained periods of time. Aerobic activity develops cardiovascular endurance. Examples of aerobic activity include running and jogging, cycling, lap swimming, speed skating, cross-country skiing, stair-stepping, jazzercize, hip-hop, rope jumping, rowing, hockey, basketball, etc.
- anaerobic activity
Anaerobic activity is generally performed at a medium to high intensity for less than two minutes, where energy is derived without oxygen. Anaerobic activity develops muscular strength and endurance. Examples of anaerobic activities include weight lifting, jumping rope, interval and isometrics.
- assessment – formative
Assessment of learning that provides students with clear criteria and feedback for self-evaluation during the learning sequence as part of a comprehensive assessment and evaluation system. Formative assessment may involve:
- student learning intentions of the learning task;
- clear criteria for the learning task;
- regular, thoughtful feedback to the student;
- effective teacher questions to lead discussions;
- opportunities for students to work as learning/teaching resources for others; and
- building student capacity to take responsibility for their own learning
- assessment – summative
Assessment of learning that provides students with evaluation of their learning at the conclusion of a learning sequence, and documents student progress
- Assessment for Learning, as Learning, of Learning
- Assessment for learning – formative assessment that supports and guides learning;
- Assessment as learning – formative assessment that involves students in guiding their own learning;
- Assessment of learning – summative assessment that documents student learning.
- balanced lifestyle
Refers to a way of living that achieves an integrated approach to personal health by recognizing the interconnected dimensions of physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual well-being.
A pattern of repeated aggressive behaviour with negative intent, directed from one person to another where there is a power imbalance. Bullying may be physical, (e.g., hitting, punching, shoving), verbal (e.g., name-calling, teasing, coercion, threats), or social (e.g., alienation, gossiping, inciting hatred). Bullying is distinct from occasional interpersonal conflict in that bullying is generally repeated over time, is intended to hurt, and usually involves a perceived power imbalance. See also internet bullying or cyber-bullying.
- cardiovascular endurance
Refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to sustain moderate to intense activity for extended periods without undue stress to the body. Cardiovascular endurance is a component of fitness.
In terms of school connectedness, a student’s sense of knowledge and confidence in their own strengths, abilities, and gifts, and the ability to use them to meet goals and challenges faced in the school setting.
- components of fitness
The inter-related characteristics that determine a person’s physical conditioning. There are two categories of components of fitness:
health-related components of fitness: muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility;
skill-related components of fitness: agility, speed, reaction time, co-ordination, balance.
Both types of fitness affect an individual’s ability to perform movement skills.
- Comprehensive School Health
Comprehensive School Health (CSH) is an internationally recognized framework that supports improvements in student learning while addressing health issues in a planned, integrated and holistic way. CSH recognizes that all aspects of the life of the school community are potentially important when promoting health. CSH does not happen just in the classroom, but encompasses integrating actions in the social and physical environment, partnerships and services and teaching and learning including informal curriculum and associated activities. Research has shown effective CSH actions make a major contribution to schools achieving their education and social goals.
Also known as "Internet bullying" or "digital bullying", refers to harassment that takes place using an electronic medium. Cyber-bullying can occur through e-mail, instant messaging, text messaging, chat rooms, online voting booths, or other electronic means.
- Daily Physical Activity
Daily Physical Activity is defined as endurance, strength and/or flexibility activities done on a daily basis. See Daily Physical Activity (DPA)
Refers to the ways in which we differ from each other. Some of these differences may be visible (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, age, ability), while others are less visible (e.g., culture, ancestry, language, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background).
When a person – on the basis of his or her age, gender, sexual orientation, race, religion, or physical or mental ability – suffers disadvantages or is denied opportunities available to other members of society.
In terms of school connectedness, a student’s sense of being responsible and able to make decisions based on knowledge of their needs and the needs of others in the school setting.
- energy balance
Energy balance is the equation of the amount of energy put into the body (food calories) versus the amount of energy expended (activity). Energy balance can be neutral (calories taken in equal calories expended), positive (calories taken in are greater than calories expended) and negative (calories taken in are less than calories expended).
- fair play
Formerly known as "good sportsmanship", includes skills and behaviours such as abiding by the rules, encouragement, co-operation, respect for diverse skill and ability levels, displaying emotions and reactions appropriately, etc.
The range and ease of movement at a joint or series of joints. Flexibility is a component of fitness.
- food guide
Any categorization of food groups designed to aid in the planning of healthy eating. Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating is the most common tool, but other tools can be used to guide nutritional choices (e.g., native food guides, vegan food guide).
- formative assessment
Assessment for learning –assessment of student performance, ongoing in the classroom, by students, teachers and parents, which supports and guides learning.
Continual or repeated bullying behaviour of one individual by another, with the intent of the harasser to trouble or annoy the victim. Harassment may be physical, (e.g., hitting, punching, shoving), verbal (e.g., name-calling, teasing, coercion, threats), or social (e.g., alienation, gossiping, inciting hatred). See bullying.
Refers to physical, social and emotional (mental) well-being. Optimum health is a state of complete well-being in each dimension, and is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
- healthy eating
Eating according to the recommendations from Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating;
Concepts of healthy eating include:
- eating the recommended number of servings from each of the four food groups (recommended by age, gender, and activity level)
- choosing a variety of healthy options with in each food group (e.g., whole grains, a range of colours of vegetables and fruit, low-fat milk products, lean meat and alternatives)
- awareness of appropriate serving size
- eating according to hunger and fullness cues
- Healthy Eating
An aspect of the healthy living performance standards which assesses student learning that contributes to making healthy food choices, now and in the future.
- healthy habits
Consistent behaviours that contribute to a healthy lifestyle.
- healthy lifestyle
Refers to making healthy choices which enhance physical, emotional and social well-being over the course of one’s lifetime.
- health literacy
Health literacy entails the ability to make sound health decisions in the context of everyday life – at home, in the community, at school, at the workplace, in the health care system, in the market place and in the political arena. It is a critical empowerment strategy to increase people’s control over their health, their ability to seek out information and to take responsibility.
- Health Literacy Framework
Refers to an organizational approach, for the purposes of this document, which frames healthy living curricular outcomes in terms of functional, interactive and critical health literacy.
Functional health literacy: basic communication of health information, involving accessing, understanding and evaluating information about health
Interactive health literacy: development of personal skills regarding health issues, involving decision-making, goal-setting and practices to enhance health
Critical health literacy: respecting different cultural, family and religious beliefs in respect to health, and advocating for personal, family and community change that enhances health
- Healthy Practices
An aspect of the healthy living performance standards which assesses student learning that contributes to making positive health and safety choices, now and in the future.
- Healthy Relationships
An aspect of the healthy living performance standards which assesses student learning that contributes to forming and maintaining positive relationships, now and in the future.
- healthy snacks (healthy meals)
A healthy snack and a healthy meal count toward the recommended number of Food Guide Servings. The best choices are foods from the four food groups in Canada’s Food Guide. Canada Food Guide food group servings are based on age, gender and level of physical activity.
- heart rate
Refers to the pulse, calculated by counting the number of beats of the heart per unit of time.
Refers to food, meals, snacks, etc., that are low in fat and high in fibre, thus helping to prevent heart disease.
- Internet bullying
Refers to harassment that takes place using an electronic medium. Also know as cyber-bullying or digital bullying, internet bullying can occur through e-mails, instant messaging, text messaging, chat rooms, online voting booths, or other electronic means.
- Internet safety
Considerations for physical and emotional safety and privacy issues in relation to a variety of online activities, including chat rooms, blogs, instant messaging, cyber-stalking, cyber-harassment, etc.
- learning intention
Refers to a statement which describes, in student language, what a student expects to know or be able to do to fully meet learning expectations for a prescribed learning outcome. This means that students should be able to tell someone else in their own words what the learning intentions are and how they connect to life beyond school.
- learning outcomes
The prescribed learning outcomes set the learning standards for the provincial K-12 education system and form the prescribed curriculum for British Columbia. They are statements of what students are expected to know and do at the end of an indicated grade or course.
- muscular strength and endurance
Refers to the amount of force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert, and the ability of the muscle to continue to exert force over a period of time. Muscular strength and endurance is a component of fitness.
The components of food needed by the body for health and development. Nutrients include macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins and fibre) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals or antioxidants).
- peer pressure
Verbal or non-verbal active or passive social influences (e.g., words, behaviours) that are intended to affect a person’s attitudes or actions. Although peer pressure is traditionally thought to be a negative influence, it can also have positive effects (e.g., encouragement to quit smoking or to avoid harmful gossip).
- perceived rate of exertion
A qualitative approach to determining an individual’s exertion level, based on self-monitoring and reference to a rate of perceived exertion scale. (A quantitative approach would be taking pulse or using a heart rate monitor which would then be compared to a target heart rate chart.)
- performance standards
An assessment resource that gives teachers a way to assess students’ abilities to apply their learning in realistic performance tasks. Used with other methods, they can be an important part of a comprehensive assessment and evaluation system. Performance standards articulate four levels of student performance
for a variety of curricular areas and prescribed learning outcomes. The student performance information is presented in a rating scale format.
- principles of training
Refers to the manner in which a person selects and participates in particular exercises designed to maintain or improve fitness. There are many different models and components of training principles; the ones used in the physical education curriculum are:
- duration (how long)
- repetition (how many times)
- intensity (how vigorous)
- frequency (how often)
- type of activity
In terms of school connectedness, a student’s sense of feeling included, connected, close to peers and teachers, and other significant adults, within the school setting, resulting in feeling included, encouraged and supported, and able to support others in return.
Resilience is the capacity of individuals to draw on their own resourcefulness to deal effectively with the demands of life, to return to full functioning after setbacks, and to learn from such experiences to function better in the future. Resilience is broadly understood to include both the individuals’ role in creating health when faced with multiple risks, and the family, community and cultural factors that must be present to help create that health.
- rating scale
This is the full version of the performance standards, with four student performance levels described in detail. The student performance levels are: not yet meeting expectations (emerging), minimally meeting expectations (developing), fully meeting expectations (acquired), and exceeding expectations (accomplished).
- safe and caring school
A safe and caring school is one that creates a respectful environment, free of bullying and discrimination, where all feel welcome and accepted, and where all feel free to learn and to speak openly. The term "safe and caring school" does not refer to the structural safety of the school building and grounds.
- sample task
This is a task developed by practising teachers to provide opportunities to assess student work in a skill area. Each sample task includes examples of student work. Teachers may use the tasks as given or as models. Any tasks used should first be reviewed for issues sensitive to the class or community.
- school connectedness
A student’s active engagement in the academic and social opportunities at the school based on the student’s understanding that peers, teachers and other adults at the school care for them as individuals, as well as for their learning. School connectedness contributes to the achievement, life-long resilience and positive mental health of students.
School connectedness is fostered when teachers and other adults create opportunities for students to experience significance, competence, empowerment and relatedness at school.
In terms of school connectedness, a student’s sense of feeling valued, worthwhile and capable of accomplishment, with acknowledgment by peers, teachers and other significant adults in the school setting.
- social inclusion
Represents the degree to which individuals feel connected to their communities. More broadly, it is about the strength within communities and organizations to sustain positive mental health. Connectedness within a community or organization can be measured by the extent to which people feel valued, supported, appreciated, involved and engaged.
- Evidence Review: Mental Health Promotion, BC Ministry of Health, May 2007
- substance misuse
Also known as "substance abuse", or "problematic substance use", refers to the use of any substance (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs, inebriants such as solvents) in a way that is harmful to a person’s well-being- physically, socially, mentally or financially.
- Summative assessment
Assessment of learning – an evaluation that concludes the learning process with a judgment regarding the level, worth or merit of student performance, with feedback usually given in the form of a mark, pass/fail, achieved/not achieved, measuring the results of learning (BCLEC, 2009).